The following is an excerpt.

While SFI CASA’s shock tube is a valuable tool for investigating plated structures subjected to blast-like loading, nothing beats actual field tests using live explosives.

This has been done at Østøya in collaboration with the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency. Live explosives of different sizes were put inside concrete pipes to examine their behaviour during blast loading. Pressure sensors on each side of the pipe logged the pressure, whilst high-speed cameras recorded the events at 22 000 frames per second. The tests show that the confinement of the tubular structure amplifies the pressure at the sensors compared with a free air blast, and these experiments will serve as excellent validation cases for numerical models.